How were women converted to Judaism in ancient times, if they were not circumcised? I looked online and couldn't find anything.—M.H.

Ruth, the Perfect Convert | yesheva4meI suppose there are two separate questions: (1) How did women become Jews in the Old Testament? (2) How was this done in later times, like the time of Jesus?

As for (1), in Judaism there is no female circumcision (thank goodness!), and never was. So.... How did Rahab come to faith? What about Ruth? By obedient faith. By trusting in the God of Israel, following God’s Law, and remaining faithful to the covenant.

As for (2), in later times we hear of proselyte baptism—which was for women, not just men. So men would be circumcised, offer a sacrifice, and be immersed. Women would omit the first step. But this is tradition, not Torah. Hope that helps.