Here are a podcast and notes on The Hadith, Pt. 3 (43 minutes).

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V. WOMEN / FAMILY

  • Kindness to (household) servants—3.661
  • Marriage
    • Persons suckled together may not marry / must divorce—3.808
    • Muhammad (M) gave his wives the option to divorce, with substantial endowment—3.648
  • General
    • High infant mortality--2.340, 2.463
    • Women inherit—4.358
    • M disapproved of the killing of women and children—4.257-258
    • No burying daughters alive—3.591
  • Birth
    • All are born Muslims—2.440
    • Gender determined at 12 weeks—4.550. Or in intercourse, depending on whether the male or the female discharges first—4.546.
    • Coitus interruptus defended: “There is not a soul who is to be born for the day of Resurrection, but that it will be born.” HB3. Used to overcome objections to birth control.
  • Religion
    • Paradise may be a “band of brothers,” but women are still included in the faith.
    • Hajj—2.714. Hajj takes the place of jihad for women—3.84, 4.43…Though women indirectly participated in jihad by bringing water to warriors, as did two of M’s wives—4.131
  • Conspicuously:
    • Women must travel with a man, and no man may be alone with a woman.—4.250
    • Hijab—1.148. Even with the hijab, a Muslim woman can still violate the spirit of the law.
    • Perhaps westerners overreact. Yet our own treatment of women as objects is deplorable. Neither culture, Islamic or western, is balanced.
  • Respect for women?
    • He seems often to listen to his (favorite) wives, but I’m not convinced.
    • Half as intelligent as a man; and legal testimony worth ½ that of a man—1.301, 3.826
    • “A dignified woman, Jauniyaa (a princess) was brought to Muhammad to have sex with him but she was reluctant to give herself to him; Muhammad was angry and raised his hand to beat her…” 7.63.182. See Q4:34. Online video defending physical force (a “light beating”) on the analogy that governments must have the right to use force to prevent society from falling into evil.
    • Many men reach the level of perfection, but no women, except for ‘Aisha, Pharaoh’s wife, and Mary daughter of Imran—4.623
    • Majority in hellfire are women—1.28, 2.161, 2.541, 4.464
    • Normally, for ingratitude; also cursing (Did M feel his wives didn’t appreciate him?)
    • Each man gets two women in paradise—4.468. But how? The mathematics is wrong.
    • Islam teaches easy divorce. As long as the man says three times "I divorce you," it's legal. In 2001 a woman in Dubai, who was late in making her husband's tea, received the third and final message by text: "You're late. I divorce you." She challenged this in court -- and lost!
  • Summary
    • In Islam, the lot of women is a mixed bag.
    • Barbarism -> OT -> NT—but Muslim treatment of women seems retrograde. Should we be aiming to live by a 7th-century ethic?

VI. VIOLENCE

  • WAR
    • Fought in Arabia, expelling pagans from Arabian peninsula—4.288
    • Possible naval expedition against Constantinople—4.175. Great expansion 600s-700s AD
    • Expansion of Islam. Motives?
    • M portrayed as a man of war. M’s head wounded, helmet smashed, front tooth lost, blood… 4:152,159
    • Jihad is the 2nd best deed—1.25; 3rd best deed—4.41 (pray @ appt’d times, duty to parents, jihad)
      • “If you are called for fighting, go forth immediately”—4.42
      • One of 7 most destructive sins = running away from the enemy in war—4.28
    • Killing unbelievers
      • Fight infidels—1.387: “Allah’s apostle said, ‘I have been ordered to fight the people till they say, “None has the right to be worshiped but Allah.”’”
      • “Killing disbelievers is a small matter to us.”-- Tabari IX.69
      • Attacking infidel caravans—3.891
      • Attacking without warning—3.717 (O.T.—Deut 20:10; N.T.—nothing. Romans 12:14-21)
    • Golden rule applying only to fellow Muslims—1.12.  I wonder what M would say about the fighting between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims in our day.
  • MARTYRDOM
    • Mujahid -> paradise, 4.46. (See Q 3.)
    • Martyrdom in jihad better than the entire world—4.53,54
    • Mujahid receives honor from A (would live/die 10x!)—4.72,216
    • Jihadi ideal: “Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse to strive in A’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust.”—4.137
  • EXECUTION
    • Execution order—3.687. Once M was powerful, he would not allow himself to be mocked.
    • Death for apostates—4.260
  • MUTILATION
    • In one place, M forbids mutilation—3.654, but he doesn’t seem to have followed the rule himself, as he orders the hands to be cut off a woman for stealing—3.816. (See Q 5.)
    • Al-Khadir decapitates a boy as a mere object lesson—1.124.
  • RETALIATION
    • Lex Talionis (tooth for tooth)—3.596, though at least once M suspends lex talionis —4.61, 3.866.
    • Prayed for punishment of his enemies—2.116.
    • Prank of camel innards on M’s back—imprecation, and 7 corpses later found in well—1.241,1.499
    • When cursed, cursed in return – 4.186.
    • At death, last words were a curse against Jews and Christians—1.427. Earlier, a Jew is addressed, “O the enemy of Allah”—3.889
    • Men had been ill, M sent them to camels to be healed (by drinking urine/milk). Later they become apostates. Kill M’s chief shepherd and drove away his camels. Search, chop hands & feet, eyes blinded w/heated iron, no water -- 1.234, 2.577, 4.261
  • If M came after J.C., and this was supposedly an improvement, why did the level of morality dip below even the average O.T. level (which itself shows mixed levels of vengeance/compassion)? Regressive!

Conclusion: Is violence consistent with the teaching of the founder?

  • The “sword” of Matthew 10:34 compared to “The Prophet said, ‘Hear me. By Him who holds Muhammad’s life in his hand, I will bring you slaughter.’” (Ishaq: 130; Tabari: VI.101)
  • “Isn’t he truly Allah’s prophet?... Then why should we be humble in our religion?” [insult]—3.891
  • Obsessed with control
    • “…He who obeys me obeys Allah, and he who disobeys me, disobeys Allah…”—4.204
    • Why people go to hell: As one commentator analyzed it, 4%: moral transgression; 96%: disagreeing with Muhammad
    • Before M the various religions of Arabia coexisted; religious tolerance would be lost.
  • 1 Peter 2:20b-23—not fighting back, even when we are in the right.

VII. JESUS CHRIST

  • M used to hear the gospels read (in Arabic)—4.605. Met a monk around aged 12 (Arian? Nestorian? Gnostic?)
  • Christianity: accepts some aspects, but not others.
    • M borrows from Christianity
    • Already mentioned some miracles that faintly approximate Jesus’ own
    • Variation on Parable of Workers in the Vineyard – 3.468-471
  • Arabia in 7th century a blend of several religions, but esp. polytheism and (compromised) Christianity.
  • Muslim charge: B was corrupted—3.850. (Though Q tells Christians to follow the Injil.)
  • M reacting to 7th-century Christianity
  • Catholicism and (apparently) some form of sectarian Christianity.
  • M cursed Jews and Christians for praying at graves—2.414.  Insight into 7th C. religion
  • Jesus & Mary
    • From birth Satan could not touch him—4.506
    • Jesus spoke in the cradle. 4.645
    • Jesus red-faced, like someone emerging from the toilet. – M had seen representations
    • M saw images in church in Ethiopia—1.419. And during the mi’raj M saw Jesus with fair skin and lank hair—4.462.
    • Saw Mariya—4.26
    • Ascension—4.568
    • Second coming—3.656; Jesus soon to return—3.425. Seems M may have thought world would end in 100 years—1.575.
    • Helpful book: Michael Licona, Paul Meets Muhammad: A Christian-Muslim Debate on the Resurrection.

CONCLUSION

  • There are many other interesting things in the Hadith
    • Letter to emperor inviting (Heraclius) to convert
    • M’s generation = the best generation, followed by the one after it. In time, “soon.” Fatness will appear—3.819
    • M cursed men who act like women, and women who act like men – HB4.
    • Mosque built in Mecca 40 years before Al-Aqsa Mosque—4.585,636 (2500 years too late?)
    • Angels & demons
      • Gabriel has 600 wings—4.445
      • Satan – more about the devil in the Muslim writers than in the N.T.
      • Just as blood circulates in the body, so “Satan circulates in the mind”--4.333
    • Yawning is from Satan.  4.509
    • Consumption of a whale—3.663
    • M sacrificed animals (why?)—3.864.  M slaughters a kid in sacrifice—3.497
  • Let’s close our study by examining a couple of the claims of Islam.
    • Don’t be extremists in religion—1.38. It’s all relative to what you consider to be “extreme.”
    • Last and best prophet? M sent to all the world, whereas all other prophets sent only to their own nations—1.331. This is false.
    • Sin to ask too many questions about disputed matters? Sure, one can go too far. But we should beware the authoritarian attitude that values stability over truth.
  • Contrasts: not only Islam v. Christianity, but (esp.) Muhammad v. Jesus Christ.
  • Want to learn about Islam? Spend some time in the Hadith.